basics.tex 8.2 KB
Newer Older
1 2
\documentclass[slidestop]{beamer}

3
\title{Git Basics}
4
\providecommand{\myConference}{Git course}
5
\providecommand{\myDate}{Monday, July 7, 2014}
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
\author{Jeroen F. J. Laros}
\providecommand{\myGroup}{Leiden Genome Technology Center}
\providecommand{\myDepartment}{Department of Human Genetics}
\providecommand{\myCenter}{Center for Human and Clinical Genetics}
\providecommand{\lastCenterLogo}{
  \raisebox{-0.1cm}{
    \includegraphics[height=1cm]{lgtc_logo}
    %\includegraphics[height=0.7cm]{ngi_logo}
  }
}
\providecommand{\lastRightLogo}{
  %\includegraphics[height=0.7cm]{nbic_logo}
  %\includegraphics[height=0.8cm]{nwo_logo_en}
  %\hspace{1.5cm}\includegraphics[height=0.7cm]{gen2phen_logo}
}

\usetheme{lumc}

\begin{document}

% This disables the \pause command, handy in the editing phase.
%\renewcommand{\pause}{}

% Make the title page.
\bodytemplate

% First page of the presentation.
33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
\section{Initialisation}
\begin{frame}[fragile]
  \frametitle{Starting a project.}

  Creating a new repository is easy. You do not need a server, no registration,
  etc.
  \bigskip
 
  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Make a new repository.]
42
    $ cd ~/projects
43 44 45 46
    $ git init
    Initialized empty Git repository in <path>/.git/
  \end{lstlisting}
  \bigskip
Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
47
  \pause
48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

  Or you can ``clone'' an existing repository.
  \bigskip

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Clone an existing repository.]
    $ git clone <path-to-repository>
  \end{lstlisting}
\end{frame}

\begin{frame}[fragile]
  \frametitle{Starting a project.}

  You can see a hidden directory in a Git repository.
  \bigskip

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=A hidden directory is added.]
    $ ls -a
    .  ..  .git
  \end{lstlisting}
  \bigskip

  This directory contains almost everything that Git stores and manipulates.
\end{frame}

\section{Manipulation}
73
\begin{frame}
74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124
  \frametitle{Local operations.}

  \begin{figure}[]
    \begin{center}
      \includegraphics[height=0.8\textheight]{pics/18333fig0106-tn}
    \end{center}
    \caption{Working directory, staging area, and Git directory.}
    \label{}
  \end{figure}
\end{frame}

\begin{frame}[fragile]
  \frametitle{Checking the status of your files.}

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Check status.]
    $ git status
    nothing to commit (working directory clean)
  \end{lstlisting}
  \bigskip

  ``\bt{git status}'' can tell you whether your files are:
  \begin{itemize}
    \item Untracked.
    \item Unmodified.
    \item Modified.
    \item Staged.
  \end{itemize}
\end{frame}

\begin{frame}
  \frametitle{Checking the status of your files.}

  \begin{figure}[]
    \begin{center}
      \includegraphics[height=0.8\textheight]{pics/18333fig0201-tn}
    \end{center}
    \caption{The lifecycle of the status of your files.}
    \label{}
  \end{figure}
\end{frame}

\begin{frame}[fragile]
  \frametitle{Adding, removing, renaming.}

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=This file is not tracked.]
    $ echo First version. > README
    $ git status
    # Untracked files:
    #       README
  \end{lstlisting}
  \bigskip
Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
125
  \pause
126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Now the file will be tracked.]
    $ git add README
    $ git status
    # Changes to be committed:
    #       new file:   README
  \end{lstlisting}
  \bigskip

  To rename a file, use ``\bt{git mv}'', to remove, use ``\bt{git rm}''.
\end{frame}

\section{Working with versions}
\begin{frame}[fragile]
  \frametitle{commit}

  Once you have modified your files and added them to the \emph{staging area},
  you can commit them (add them to the repository).
  \bigskip

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Commit a new version.]
    $ git commit
  \end{lstlisting}

Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
150 151
  This will open an editor, give a short description (50 characters) and a list
  of the changes (72 column format).
152
  \begin{itemize}
Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
153
    \item Useful when you want to search.
154
  \end{itemize}
Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
155 156 157 158 159 160
  \bigskip
  \pause

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Commit a new version.]
    $ git commit -m "Solved the counting bug."
  \end{lstlisting}
161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176
\end{frame}

\begin{frame}[fragile]
  \frametitle{Undoing changes.}

  Sometimes you will accidentally add a file.
  \bigskip

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Adding a new version of a file.]
    $ echo Second version. > README
    $ git add README
    $ git status
    # Changes to be committed:
    #       modified:   README
  \end{lstlisting}
  \bigskip
Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
177
  \pause
178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226

  If you want to undo this, you can use ``\bt{git reset}''.
  \bigskip

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Unstage a file.]
    $ git reset README
    $ git status
    # Changes not staged for commit:
    #       modified:   README
  \end{lstlisting}
\end{frame}

\begin{frame}[fragile]
  \frametitle{Viewing the history.}

  To see the history of your project, use ``\bt{git log}''.
  \bigskip

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=The log of our project.]
    $ git log
    commit cc61ee7cd72590f3bebcc9e1ff3e9435c7f7dd28
    Author: J.F.J. Laros <j.f.j.laros@lumc.nl>
    Date:   Fri Oct 11 14:18:13 2013 +0200

        Second version.

    commit 8e10be812fd78f69a5e3bac7670c62438161b6b0
    Author: J.F.J. Laros <j.f.j.laros@lumc.nl>
    Date:   Fri Oct 11 14:17:51 2013 +0200

        First version.
  \end{lstlisting}
\end{frame}

\begin{frame}[fragile]
  \frametitle{Undo a commit.}

  Sometimes we want to undo an entire commit. This is done with
  ``\bt{git revert}''.
  \bigskip

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Revert a commit.]
    $ git revert cc61ee7cd72590f3bebcc9e1ff3e9435c7f7dd28
    $ cat README
    First version.
  \end{lstlisting}
  \bigskip

  The hash can be found with ``\bt{git log}''.
Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
227 228 229
  \bigskip
  \pause

bow's avatar
bow committed
230
  You can also use a unique prefix of this hash, usually six characters is
Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
231
  enough.
232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240
\end{frame}

\begin{frame}[fragile]
  \frametitle{Viewing changes in detail.}

  If you want to see what has changed, use ``\bt{git diff}''.
  \bigskip

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Difference between the working copy
Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
241
    and the staging area.]
242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250
    $ echo Third version. > README
    $ git diff
    --- a/README
    +++ b/README
    @@ -1 +1 @@
    -First version.
    +Third version.
  \end{lstlisting}
  \bigskip
Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259
  \pause

  For staged files, use the ``\bt{--cached}'' or ``\bt{--staged}'' option.
  \bigskip

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Difference between the staging area
    and the last commit.]
    $ git diff --cached
  \end{lstlisting}
260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277
\end{frame}

\begin{frame}[fragile]
  \frametitle{Viewing changes in detail.}

  You can see the differences between any two versions.
  \bigskip

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Difference between the working copy
    and an other commit.]
    $ git diff cc61ee
    --- a/README
    +++ b/README
    @@ -1 +1 @@
    -Second version.
    +Third version.
  \end{lstlisting}
  \bigskip
Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
278 279 280 281 282 283
  \pause

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Difference between two committed
    versions.]
    $ git diff 8e10be cc61ee
  \end{lstlisting}
284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292
\end{frame}

\section{Extras}
\begin{frame}[fragile]
  \frametitle{Explicit no tracking.}

  Sometimes you do not want to track certain files:
  \begin{itemize}
    \item Executables.
Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
293
    \item \bt{pdf} files (if you still have the \LaTeX\ source).
294 295 296 297
    \item Python bytecode (\bt{.pyc}) files.
    \item Files containing passwords.
  \end{itemize}
  \bigskip
Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
298
  \pause
299

Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
300
  Use the special ``\bt{.gitignore}'' file.
301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308
  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Ignoring certain files.]
    $ touch notrack.txt
    $ echo notrack.txt > .gitignore
    $ git add .gitignore
    $ git commit
    $ git status
    nothing to commit, working directory clean
  \end{lstlisting}
309 310
\end{frame}

Jeroen F.J. Laros's avatar
Jeroen F.J. Laros committed
311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330
\begin{frame}[fragile]
  \frametitle{Help.}

  With the ``\bt{help}'' command get the manual of a particular subcommand.
  \bigskip

  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Get the full manual.]
    $ git help <command>
  \end{lstlisting}
  \bigskip
  \pause

  Example.
  \bigskip
  \begin{lstlisting}[language=none, caption=Get the manual for the diff
    subcommand.]
    $ git help diff
  \end{lstlisting}
\end{frame}

331 332
\section{Questions?}
\lastpagetemplate
333
\begin{fframe}
334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342
  \begin{center}
    Acknowledgements:
    \bigskip
    \bigskip

    Martijn Vermaat

    Zuotian Tatum

343 344
    Wibowo Arindrarto

345
  \end{center}
346 347 348 349

  \vfill
  \permfoot{http://git-scm.com/book}
\end{fframe}
350 351

\end{document}